According to the United States Constitution, Article I: the legislative, law making power, is given to a bicameral, law-making, Congress that consists of two Houses: the Senate and the House of Representatives. Only they have the power to make laws that have to be identical when passed by both Houses of Congress and then signed by the President.
Originally the House was directly elected by the people and the Senate, which was supposed to represent the states, was elected by the legislatures of each individual state. In 1913 this was changed by the 17th Amendment to the Constitution which had the people of each state directly elect the Senators, making them directly responsible to all the people of their respective states.
In the Constitution all financial bills have to originate in the House of Representatives. This was put in so that the direct representatives of the people who paid the taxes could feel responsible for all government expenditures. Even though the 17th Amendment changed this the power still rests with the House as the new Speaker of the House of Representatives recently stated in an interview.
House members serve for a two year term and then have to be reelected for another two year term. Senators are elected for a six year period and can then stand for reelection if they so desire. All members in both Houses are currently paid $170,000 a year for their services.
Today the number of legislators in the House of Representatives is fixed at 435. Every ten years an enumeration of the population is taken and the seats are reassigned to the election districts within the states based upon increases in and/or population changes which may then redefine the election districts both in number and size within the individual states. This was last done in 2010 and those states that had Republican legislator majorities redrew their districts in terms of their political favor by blatantly gerrymandering. In fact in the 2012 Election over a million and ¼ more Democrats voted nationally for House Representatives but the Republicans emerged with majority representation in the House of Representatives because of favoring their party in creating the allowable number of election districts within their states. Currently there are 247 Republicans in the House and 188 Democrats. Each of the smaller states, even if their entire population is below the count for representatives in the larger states ate entitled to at least one representative in the House. There are also six non-voting members representing Washington, D.C and most of the territories belonging to the United States.
In the Senate there are 100 members representing the fifty states. The number of senators can be increased if additional states are added to the union. As stated the Senators today represent the people of the entire state they come from and are elected by the entire voting population of each individual state.
One of the basic concepts of our country is the concept of compromise. Without this ability our founding fathers would never have been able to bring forth the Constitution. A document that established a government between the 13 states that were both free and slave, large and small, based with beliefs and basic values that were literally miles apart. The current Congress seems to have lost that ability. In fact if the current congressmen had to write a constitution today they would be unable to do it and the country would end up at best as a group of small federations.
What always struck me as a basic concept of our form of government was best stated in a quote from Benjamin Franklin, which he wrote in all seriousness. “In free governments the rulers are the servants and the people their superiors and sovereigns. For the former therefore to return among the later was not to degrade but to promote them.” Somehow this concept has become lost, particularly to many of the current Republicans in both Houses of Congress.
All of our members of Congress, according to Article VI of the Constitution take an oath, upon becoming a member of Congress, to uphold the Constitution. Somehow, of late, I get the impression that many of our legislators have either forgotten or never understood this concept. I also get the feeling that in the minds of many of our Republican legislators that the people’s function is merely to keep them in office so that they can force their will or agendas upon the nation. And if these hard-core Republicans cannot get what they want then what exists is total gridlock, which is what seems to exist in the House of Representatives at the current time.
To the Tea Partiers among the Republicans in the House of Represenatives the country will function their way or not at all. The fact that they and possibly their constituents constitute a minority of the population is immaterial. Even though a Democratic Republic is supposed to be ruled by the will of the majority of the population they believe absolutely that they are right and everyone else is wrong or misinformed. This is all very reminiscent of the old Communist Party where all the members had to follow the party line, or be expelled from the party. In their hearts these people, the Freedom Caucus in the House of Representatives, the 40 hard-liners know what is right for the American People and they will have their way or nothing will happen in Congress.
John Boehner, the Republican Speaker of the House, has resigned both as Speaker and as a member of the House, effective October 31st. His immediate replacement, Kevin McCarthy, the House Whip has withdrawn as a candidate for the Speakership. He did not have the votes within his own party. The one other possible replacement, Paul Ryan, has initially turned down the offer of assuming that role. Presumably the price of taking it was to support numerous positions that he found unacceptable. Boehner said he will stay in office until a replacement is found. After a little over a week of negotiating and also being cajoled Paul Ryan accepted the Speakership. He got the support of most of the Tea Party and the majority of the other Republican House Congressmen.
The Freedom Caucus, which seems to hold the balance of power among the Republican House members, were thrilled at presumably getting rid of Boehner. If they did achieve this it was a pyrrhic victory. They may have gotten him to resign but now Ryan is the new Speaker and in order to get him to accept the position most of the House Republicans have sworn allegiance to him. This includes the majority of the Freedom Caucus but not the entire group.
There was also a move at the end September to “Ditch Mitch.” Many far right Republican Senate members do not consider him aggressive enough to run the Republican Party in the Senate. Louisiana Governor and Presidential Candidate Bobby Jindal has called upon Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell to resign. They want someone who will stand up to the President and take some risks. McConnell has too much support from Republicans in the Senate to be in any danger in terms of being forced out of the Senate.
The frustration for these hard-liners seems to be that they, the Republicans, have the majority in both Houses of Congress but their particular group doesn’t have the votes to stop legislation if it is also supported in both Houses of Congress. The fact that this situation exists in Congress would indicate the epitome of dysfunctionality.
The basic question, in terms of Congress, comes down to: What is the main purpose of the Government? And the answer to that question, most simply stated is answered in the preamble to the Constitution:
We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.
This is what the members of Congress have taken an oath to do. Is this what they, particularly the Republicans in the House of Representatives and the Senate, are doing?
Currently the House of Representatives has a new Speaker as its presiding officer. There are currently 247 Republicans in the House and 188 Democrats. The majority party has easily elected a new speaker if all the Republicans vote for whoever is running for that position. But on the far right of the conservative party is the Freedom Coalition. These are the 40 ultra-conservative hardline Tea Partiers. To them the rest of the Republican Party is not far enough to the right. Presumably they will not support anyone who will go against their agenda. They want to get rid of Affordable Health Care and defund Planned Parenthood. I suspect many of them may also be racial bigots. I imagine this feeling goes beyond this specific group to many other Republicans in Congress. Has any of this changed with the election of Paul Ryan?
If 40 votes are subtracted from the 247 currently elected Republicans they do not have enough votes to pass legislation if the 40 and the 188 elected Democrats do not support their move. Basically what this means is that the Speaker of the House and the Senate Majority Leader both have to get the support of the majority of Democrats in order to pass bills that a percentage of their party will not support.
John Boehner has faced this situation since becoming Speaker of the House in 2011 and Mitch McConnell will face this situation for the next fourteen months. Will Paul Ryan have to face this same situation? The Republicans may have the majority in both Houses but it will take a coalition of both political parties to run the country. This has to be the ultimate irony and could well lead to the formation of a new national political party after the 2016 elections.
The nation is now at the point of crisis. Legislative actions will have to be taken or the functioning of the government could be forced to cease. The Debt Limit Crisis has been averted by negotiations between the President, the Senate Republican leadership and the former Speaker, John Boehner, raising the Debt limit for the next two years.
There is also funding the Federal Government. This could stop the Federal Government if Congress does not pass a bill by December. John Boehner was able to avoid a Federal Government shutdown by resigning as Speaker and quitting the House effective October 31. But that pushed the deadline from September to December. It will again be reached in December of 2015.
This major problems still must be dealt with this year but there are numerous others that will be coming up early in January of 2016 like the automatic cuts of about 5% across the board on federal and discretionary spending if Congress does not act to stop some or all of this spending. That is sequestration, which stays in existence until 2023.
This does not count infrastructure problems like hundred or more year old bridges, some of which seem to be ready to collapse at some near future point or intercontinental train tracks which are having innumerable accidents particularly oil tankers that are jumping tracks and burning for days on end, causing massive evacuations from the deadly toxic smoke of towns and large sections of cities. This country is filled with infrastructure that was built in the first half of the Twentieth Century or earlier which needs to be replaced and/or modernized to meet the needs of today’s population.
There are also an obscene number of people being shot every day by people who, for mental reasons, should never be allowed to purchase guns. We can follow the advice of Presidential candidate Jeb Bush who after the shooting of innocent students at a college said, “Stuff happens.” A week later, after another similar shooting, he kept his mouth shut. I expected him to say, “Stuff still happens.” Mentally disturbed people should not have easy access to weapons. Somehow, even with the NRA, Congress needs to deal with this problem. It is time we stopped leading the industrial nations of the world in gun homicides.
There are other problems, including everyday things, like fiscal policy, the War against ISIS, the other crises in the Middle East, China, and Russia that require participation by Congress. None of this is being dealt with by Congress. They seem to be getting paid $170,000 each for taking vacations and leaving the country to go its own way without their participation. In fact the House of Representatives will meet for 111 days in 2016. No work week for them exceeds three days. Most of the fighting going on by the U.S. Military has never been authorized by the Congress. The Constitution clearly makes them the arbiters of war and peace. Congress has left these decisions completely in the hands of the President. They have refused to take any action.
In essence Congress is dysfunctional. Speaker, Paul Ryan, in his acceptance speech has defined Congress as broken. He says he will start anew. But Speaker Ryan is himself not far to the left of the Freedom Caucus. Will there be positive changes or will the House fall back into non-functionality? Will the House shut down the Government again? The political future should be interesting.